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Part 2 - Intermediate
Introduction
aebmfns a[pcsamgnI
]cky§fnse clkyw
]pI tXSn
kzmanPn
De
Fmhpw Huj[kkyw...
amnfmv
KuXas _meyw
]n\nemhn
hnXbvmwam...
Irjnmc
 

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7.Fmhpw Huj[kkyw; Fmhpw BtcmKyw

BtcmKy]qWamb {]IrXnbpw a\pjy kaqlhpw HptNv kpenX`mhn----sep tmgmWv Hcp bYmYcmjv{Sw cq]w sImpXv. Cu {]{Inbbn a\pjy\p am{Xa, {]]nse NcmNcsmw AhcpsSXmb FfnbXpw _rlpamb ]p hlnm\pv. kzmX Csmcp sshdkmWv. AXns B{IaWm "kzbw PohnpI', aphsb Pohnm A\phZnpI' F ]ucmWnI `mcXob Xzw \mw adpt]mIpp. ^etam? A\mtcmKyns Adhpimebntev \mw IqtmsS \bnsSpp. AhnsS \nv BtcmKyns sXfn temIntev XncnsWsan BtcmKy]cn]me\s pdnp am\hcminbpsS Aht_m[w ZrVhpw {]mtbmKnIhpamhWw. CXn\p BZyNphSp hbv]mWv {]mYanImtcmKykwcWw..


BtcmKyw ImpkqnpI a\pjys auenImhImifnsemmWv. temImtcmKykwLS\ (WHO), temIP\XbpsS kqWmtcmKyw F almb Bibw kmmXvIcnpXn\p thnbp a\pjymhImi hnfw_cns apJyJw C{]ImcamWv. ""]ctamX \nehmcnep BtcmKyw bYmhn[n A\p`hnpI FXv Hmtcm a\pjysbpw auenImhImiamWv. ChnsS PmXntm aXnt\m cmjv{Sobhnizmktm kXbvtm kmaqlnI Npp]mSpItm bmsXmcp m\hpan.''.


CsXmsSmw Hcphs BtcmKyw kwcnp Imcyn Abmġpw Abm {]Xn\o[nIcnp kapZmbn\pw Khsan\pw D DchmZnXzw IqSn Cu tcJ Hmnnpp. BtcmKy]camb AhImisfbpw DchmZnXzsfbpw Ipdnv P\sf DZv_pmcmm temImtcmKykwLS\ \Sp mL\ob{iafpsS `mKamWv {]mYmanIm tcmKykwcW ]Xn. 1978 temImtcmKykwLS\bpw bqWnsk^pw tNv AamBbn kwLSnn BtKmf ktf\nemWv {]mYmanImtcmKykwcWw F kev]w {]mtbmKnI ]Xnbmbn cq]wsImXv..


Cu ]Xnsb efnXambn Cs\ \nhNnmw kv]jvSamb {]mtbmKnI \nti P\fpsS ap]n hpsImv ASnbnc {]mYanImtcmKy{]iv\ t\cnSepw kpncamb BtcmKykwcWn\p thnbp {iafpamWv CXneqsS hn`mh\w sNpXv. Hmtcm hynbnepw IpSpw_nepw kaqlnepw Fntcm DXIpwhn[amWv CXv Bkq{XWw sNtXv..


Huj[kkyġp {]m[m\yw

FmWv Huj[kky? Hmjs AYhm thZ\sb AIpXmWv "Huj[w'. t`jPw Fpw CXn\p ]cymbapv. t`js AYhm ZpxJm\p`hs PbnpXv FmWv t`jPn\w..

]pImev kkysf Huj[nIfmbnv amXmhns m\w \In Bcm[npt]mncpp. Atbm amXr`qXIfmb Huj[nItf! \nfpsS CcnnS A\fmWv. \qdpXcn {]hnp intbmSpIqSnb Huj[nItf! Fs tcmKnIsf tcmKanmhcmn 25 opI! Cu EtKzZhN\fn \nv kkyPp kaqltmSv, {]tXyInv Huj[ kkytfmSv, \psS ]qhnIpmbncp at\m`mhw hyamIpp.

kkykwcWw \psS kwkvImcns Xs `mKambncpp. [amYhnlo\amb At\Iw km\sf hfpXns\m t{ijvTamb IaamWv bm{XnIv XWteIp Ombm hr hgnncphihpw \phfpXv Fmbncpp ]qhnIaXw. ]p InWdn\v kaw Hcp Ipfw, ]p Ipfn\p kaw Hcp Pemibw, ]p Pemibn\p kaw Hcp ]p{X. ]p ]p{Xmv kaw Hcp hrw {]mNo\ `mcXob hrn\p Iev]npsImSp apeyw Cu ]cmain \npw hyamWv. ]cnkckpe\hpw kkykwcWhpw a\pjyPohsbpw a\pjytijnbpsSbpw ssPh[ambn Ah I-ncpp.

Huj[kkysfpdnp BZyhnhcWw \app e`yamIpXv EtKzZnemWv. 107 Xcw Huj[kkyfpsS D]tbmKw CXn hnhcnbvppv. XpSv hncNnXamb AYthZn 289 Huj[kkysfpdnp ]dbpp. BbpthZkwlnXIfmb NcIkq{ipXAjvSmwK lrZbfnembn 1900 Huj[\ma (]cymb\maapssS) {]Xn]mZnnpv. GItZiw 750 Huj[kkyfpsS {]tXyIhW\ CXnepsSpp. .

CXn\ptijw {]IminXamb Huj[ \nLpfn 15,000 n\pw 20,000 n\panSbvv Huj[\ma (]cymb\ma DssS) tNnpv. GItZiw 500 \pw 700 \panSbvv hcp Huj[kkyfpsS {]tXyI h\ ChbnepsSpp. ImemImefn `mcXn {]IminXamb hnhn[ BbpthZ{K٧fpsS ASnm\n Hcp hnebncp \Sptm GItZiw 1200 Huj[kkyfpsS hnhc e`yamIpp. CXn ]eXpw A\yw \npt]mbn.

CXpIqSmsX BZnhmknI D]tbmKnp H\h[n Huj[kkyfpv. Hcp ]T\n \np sXfnbpXv {]kvXpX Huj[kkyfpsS Fw 7,500 \p apIfn hsamWv. ]mccyBZnhmkn NnInmcoXnI \Inb Adnhns ASnm\n \nccambn KthjW]T\ \SnbmWv, B[p\nI sshZyimkv{Xw aqenIIsf Ahew_npsImp Huj[ \namWntep ISXv.

atednbtcmKs Cv Hcp ]cn[nhsc ]nSnp \nm klmbnp ""kntmW'' F acns ] BUnknse Kncnhmcn \nmWv e`yambXv. 17mw \qmn KncnhImcn \nv kv]m\njv ]mXncnamcneqsS bqtdmnemIam\w CXns ApX Huj[ hn[n{]Ncnp. 1820 tPmk^v s]tjy(Joseph Peltetiu)F {^v imkv{X\mWv atednbtcmKs sNdpm Ignhp Iznss\(Quinine)CXneSnbnpsp IsnbXv

AXpt]mse cm_pZn\v Cp {]Nmcnencnp hn{Inn (Vincristine),hn_vfmkvn(Vinblastine)Fo Huj[ Ism klmbnXpw Hcp Huj[ kkyamWv. ihw\mdn, Iminsn, \nXyIeymWn Fo t]cpIfn \psS \mn Iphcp Cu sNSnbpsS imkv{X\maw ImXcmkv tdmknbkv(Catharanthus Roseus)FmWv. s]cnhnn(Perivinkle)Fmv CXns Cwojv t]cv. {]taltcmK\nb{W tijnbpsS t]cn Adnbs s]cnhnn {SobpsS \mdnhns {]NmcamWv 1950 Ifn B[p\nI sshZyimkv{Xntev CXns ISphchn\v CSbmnbXv.

ckZw Ipdbvm\pXIp Huj[ambn kKn B[p\nI sshZyimkv{Xn m\w t\SnbXv 1952 emWv. dntkn XpSn AtXmfw B¡tembnUpI CXn \npw thXncnsnpv. dthm^nbmksn\m (Rauvolfiaserpentina) FmWnXns imkv{X\maw. IqSmsX B[p\nI sshZyimkv{Xn {]Nmcnencnp ]e abpacpp IfpsSbpw DdhnSw Huj[KpWtadnb amZIkkyfmsWp ImWmw. Chbn {][m\s aqenIIfmWv Idpv, Imhv, sIm, Dw, s_tUmW XpSnbh.

Cv ]e tcmKġpw kamc Huj[fpsS DdhnSw tXSnsmp {]bmWw temIsshZyimkv{XcwKv Bcw`npIgnp. temImtcmKykwLS\ CXn\Iw Xs temIsmSpambn D]tbmKnp 20,000 Huj[kkyfpsS ]nI t{ImUoIcnp Ignp. \nehnep B[p\nI Huj[ th{X ]cym]vXasöpw ]cym]vXamIph ]eXpw ]miz^e DfhmphbmsWpw HmtXpv.

Chbn ]eXpw BtcmKy kwcWn\v Hcp `ojWnbmbn \nesImpIbmWv. Cu sshXcWnbn \np IcIbdm\p BZy]SnsbtmWw B[p\nI imkv{XKthjI ]pXnb Huj[ġp thn Huj[sSnIfn BtKmf hym]Iambn KthjWw Bcw`npIgnp. Hw Cu cwKv Bbpt Zw t]mep NnInm imkv{Xfpw ap ]mccy NnInm coXnIfpw B[p\nI imkv{Xns klmbtmsSbpw Fm kzw X\na \jvSsSmsXbpap KthjW]T\ġp XpSw Ipdnp.

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