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Part 2 - Intermediate
Introduction
aebmfns a[pcsamgnI
]cky§fnse clkyw
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kzmanPn
De
Fmhpw Huj[kkyw...
amnfmv
KuXas _meyw
]n\nemhn
hnXbvmwam...
Irjnmc
 

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8.amnfmv

]Tnphmthn DkvXmZns kao]tv B kmhmlIkwLtmsSmw ]pdsSp tm B _me\v D Hcp]tZiw sImSpp. ""Hcnepw Ifhv ]dbcpXv.'' acp`qa[ynshv sImšm B kwLs hfp]nSnp. sImůeh kwLn HmtcmcptcmSpw tNmZnp. ""Insepv?'' Fmhcpw \nehnfnp; Insempansöv Ifhv ]dp. DbpsS D]tZiw HmabmbXn\m B _me bmsXmcp IqkepanmsX Xs Ipmboibvv ]nn XpnnSnn s]m\mWbfps kXyw Xpdp]dp. B kXykXbvp apn \mWwsIv \npt]mb sImůeh\v a\wamapmbn. kXyk\mb B _me\mWv ]n¡mev ]WvUnX\pw {KImc\pamb tIfntI ssiJv aplvbno A_vZpJmZ Poem\n..


ta¸d IY \psS \mnse Hcp Ihn efnXaebmfn Atbw Npcpn hnhcnXv Cs\bmWv: ""Ifhv ]db Fp sNmmsc Is Inte s]mv sImSptmh.''.


tImgntmpImc\mb IhnbpsS t]cv Jmkn aplZv aplybno. ssiJns PohnXIYIfpw ApXhrmfpw Nn{XoIcn Cu Imhyns t]cv "aplvbpoame.' AXnte Hmtcm CucSnbpw Ccw Hmtcm IYmkqN\bmWv. Imhyns cN\mhjw: AD1607.


\psS kmlnXyNcn{Xs kw_nv {itbamb Hcp IrXnbmWv Cu amemv. ImcWw, IpInnbXntepshv Ghpw ]gb amnfmpIrXnbmWnXv. hmsamgn]mccyntXmb asmcp [mc IqSnbp amnfmns \mep \qmv ]gap hcsamgn Ncn{Xw "aplvbpoame'tbmSp IqSn Bcw`npp..


FmWv amnfmv? tIcfnepw Ad_nSense eZzo]pkaqlfnepw A[nhknphcp apowIfpsS Km\ kmlnXo]mccyamWXv B kaqlns kmwkvImcnImhnjvImcfn Ghpw {][m\ sXv. apnwIsf "amnfam' Fp hnfnphncpXn\m AhcpsS ]mv F XmXv]cy nemWv Cu t]cv \SmbXv. AXns thcpI tIcfnse \mS]mns an¯sbmWv. \mS CuWn\pw Xmfn\pw Hw apowIfpsS aXhnizmkmNmcfpsS {]`htI{amb Atd_ybnse CuWhpw Xmfhpw AXn CSIecppv Fsmcp hntijap-v. kwKoXns Cu an{iWw sImv "Ci' FdnbsSp amnfmns Km\mem]\coXnv IqSpX lrZblmcnXbpw NSpeXbpw ssIhncnpp.

CiepI \qdpIWn\pv, sXm, sImv, Imv, H\ Nmb, H\ apdpw,hncpw XpSnb t]cpIfn Ah AdnbsSpp. \psS \mS]mp]mccyfn ]eXnepw, hS]mn ImWpw t]mse, Htc CuWns GIXm\X ]pecptm amnfmpimJ CuWsshNn{Xyfm kamWv..

kwKoXnsbpw kmlnXynsbpw ka\zbamWv amnfmv. CXn kwKoXn\mWv apXqw. AXpsImpXs ChnsS {]mkhpw i_vZmemcfpw hfsc {][m\amWv. Ccw NnI, hcnI Hmabn \n¡phm klmbnp \mS]mpIfpsS k{Zmbns Ahtijamhmw. aebmfnse ]gb kmlnXykntebvv Xncnpt\mptm 30 InsSp "]mp{]m\'nsebpw aWn{]hmfnsebpw IrXnIfn Bem]\n\v a[pcw ]Icp {]mkhpw Xmfhpw apn \n¡pXp ImWmw.

]mp{]m\nse "cmaNcnX'nepw apw ImWp {]mkhyhIfmWv amnfmnepw ImWpXv. "]mn' tam\, GXpI, AmZn Fot]cpIfn AdnbsSp NnIfmWv amnfmn bYm{Iaw In, Igpv, hmep¡n Fo t]cpIfn AdnbsSpXv. amnfmnse hm¡n F {]mkhyh Ad_nImhyfnse Ayc{]mkamWv.

kwkvIrX]Zfpw hn`n{]Xybfpw aebmfhpambn CSIen D]tbmKnp aWn{]hmfImhyfnse `mjbvv kamcamsbmcp an{iWw amnfmpIrXnIfn ImWmw ChnsS kwkvIrXns m\w Ad_n`mjbvmsW hyXymktabpp. Iqn lnpm\n, ]mkn, Xangv, IU XpSnb `mjIfnse ]Zfpw [mcmfw. Bem]\n\v Cw Inpsan GXv `mjbn \nv GXp ]Zw ISsaSpphm\pw GXp ]Zw Fs\ tImew adnphm\pw amnfmsgppImv Hcp aSnbpan. Ah Aw sImsXne[nIw i_vZwsImmWv `mhhpw Acohpw krjvSnpXv.

i_vZmemcfpw AYmemcfpw D]tbmKnptm kwkvIrXnsebpw Xangnsebpw Imhy]mccysfbmWv amnfmpIrXnI ]npScpXv. CSbvv Cmcyn\v Ad_n Imhy]mccyntepw Xncnbpw.

Cu kckz`mhw amnfmv FgpXphm D]tbmKnncp en]npw ImWmw. aebmfnse Ac Ipdnphm DXIpwhn[w Ad_nen]nIġv Nne ]cnjvIcW hcpnbXpw "Ad_n aebmfw' F t]cv ]dbpXpw Bb en]nbnemWv amnfmpI FgpXntmncpXv. Cu en]nbn tcJspInSp Ad_naebmfkmlnXyw KZy]ZyIrXnIsImv kamWv. B kmlnXynse ]Zyhn`mKamWv amnfmpI.

Fm \nebvpw amnfmn Hcp kamcaWn{]hmfw ]pecppv. amnfmv Hcp kaqlns HgnhpthfbpsS hnt\mZw am{Xa. B P\XbpsS \nXyPohnXnse `n kmlNcyfpambn ]e Xen CSs]Sp kmwkvImcnIcq]w IqSnbmWv. IYIfpw hnizmkmZifpw Ncn{Xhpw A\cXeapdIġv ]Ip sImSpphm\p apnwIfpsS Iemam[yaw ]mpIfmbncpp.

sXcw Ipptmgpw tXmWn Xpgbptmgpw Imfhn sXfnptmgpw Hs amnfam ]mSnbncpp - B An Cu ]mpI Nnetm "thempI' IqSnbmbnocpp. {]IrXn\mifpw \SpZo\fpw hnhn[ kmlNcyfnep DXvIWvTIfpw ZqcoIcnp Xn\p A\pjvTm\fnepw ]v ]mv {][m\ambncpp. Z^v^vapv, Adhm\apv, No\napv, tIm¡fn XpSnb amnfeIfn ]mv apJymwiam Hscw t]mepw C.

apowIfpsS IeymWSpIfn {][m\w ]mmbncpp. HpIqSnbhsc cknnphmthn KmbIkwL ]mSp IeymW]mpI Hcp hI; aWhmfs\bpw aWhmnsbbpw Ifnbmn smv IqpIm ssIapnmSp H\mpI asmcp hI kh{X ]mpabw.

amnfam Fpw ]mp Iqambncpp. knmcpw ckmnIfpamb hnipmsc {]Ionp amempI, bpNcnX hnhcnp ]SmpI, [manI\ntZi ASnb DdpZoI, kvXpXn{][m\fmb hncp, Iev]nXIYIfpw hnipNcnXIfpw ASp InI, t{]asbpw hocsbpw ASnm\amnbp sIpI, Iv ]mnem ptm P\np Ip]mpI, h[phcmsc sImmSp H\mpI, IeymWmtLmjw hWnp IeymWmpI XpSn ]e Ahmchn`mKfpw amnfmn\pv. aXhnizmk hpambn _s hnjbsftmses {]mtZinIkmaqlnIPohnXhpambn _s At\Iw hnjb ta¸d hnhn[imJIfn {]tabambnonpv.

amnfmpcNbvXmfn Ghpw {]apJ tambnIpnsshZycmWv. Cs aepdw Pnbnse sImtmnbn 1852 P\n IhnbpsS apJyIrXnI _Zdpap\olpkv\qPam, _Z ]Smv, DlZv ]Smv, aepdw ]Smv FnhbmWv. kwKoXn\v {]m[m\yw \Ip kc `mjbmWv Cu IrXnIfnsemw ImWpXv. 1892 sshZy \ncymX\mbn.

tIcfnse ]e Km\imJIfpw Ncn{Xns `mKambngnp. ]pXnb hS]mpI Dmhpntm. Fm Cu Km\imJbpsS [mc Cpw kPohamWv. Cmepw ]pXnb amnfmpI cNnsSppv IeymWn\v ]mSm thnbpw kaImenI kmaqlnI cmjv{Sob {]iv\tfmSv {]XnIcnm thnbpw kn\na, \mSIw, tdUntbm, sSenhnj, sdmUv , Imskv , tPv]cn]mSn XpSnbhbpsS Bhiyn\pthnbpw FgpXsSp Fa ]mpI DZmlcWw. Ahbnse `mj Cs aebmfamWv. Anv Ad_nhmpI ImWmsap am{Xw.

amnfmv Cv Hcp kapZmbns am{Xw Iem\p`ha. B {]tXyIkapZmbn P\np hfh am{Xa AXv cNnpXpw ]mSpXpw BkzmZnpXpw. "amnfmv' F t]cv B Km\kmlnXo ]mccyns Dev]nNcn{Xw Ipdnp kqNIw am{XamWnv. AXns kwKoXw tIcfob kwKoXnsbpw AXns kmlnXyw aebmf kmlnXynsbpw Ahn`mPy`mKambn amdngnncnpp.

Fw.F. Imctcn.

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