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Introduction
Introduction
Passage by OV
Passage
Contd...
Passage on Kerala History
Passage
 
Conjunctions
Noun
Verb & Tense
Applications of verb
Adjective
Adverb
Sentence
 

tIcfNcn{Xw

{InkvXphjns BZys Ap \qmpI tIcfNcn{Xw cq]spXpSp ImeLamWv. Xangv kmlnXyn kp{]knamb kwLImeamWXv. Av hnimeamb XangIns H `mKambn tIcfw.

thWmSv, \mSv, S\mSv, ]qgn\mSv, Im\mSv Fns\ As tIcfw Ap \mSpIfmbn hn`Pnsn. ChbpsS AXnnIsfdnp IrXyambdnbm \nhrnbn. Fnepw kaImenI Xangv IrXnIfn ZnMvam{Xamb Nne kqN\Ifp-.

Cs Xnh\]pcw Pnbpw sImw PnbpsS GXmw `mKhpw tNXmbn thWmSv. th\mSmWv thWmSmbXv. th Fm {]`p Fw. thWmSn hSv Cs FdWmfwtImbwBepg PnIfpw sImw Pnbnse Nne {]tZifpw tNXmbn \mSv. PemibfpsS \mSmbXpsIm
mhWw Cu t]mbXv. AXn hSmbn S\mSv. Xriq]memSv PnIfpw tImgntmSv PnbpsS H `mKhpw S\mn s]n. S\mSn ]Snmtd \mSv Fw I]nmw.

sImp\mSns ]Snmdp cmPyw F \nebnembncnWw Cu t]cns D]n. Ghpw hSv ]qgn\mSmbn. NXpve [mcmfap \mSmbnncnmw CXv. Iq PnbpsS XoctZifpw tImgntmSv PnbpsS GXmw Awihpw CXnsn. ]qgn\mSn Ingv hb\mSv, KqUep XpSnb ]X{]tZi tNmbn Im\mSv. Im\mSv F t]cn\q Zpaamb cmPyw FmWw. thWmSv, Im\mSv Fo t]I kwLImen tijw \nehn hhbmWv.

{][m\ambpw aq cm{obinIfmWv kwLImens BZyZibn tIcfw `cnnXv. sX{]tZi BbvcmPmmw, hS tZi GgnaecmPmmw `cnph. ChnSbnep \mSmbn tNccmPmmsS B[n]XynenXv.

Free-standing new words: (kzX{ambn \n ]pXnb hmI)

No Word Meaning
1 Xangv Tamil
2 Av then
3 tIcfw Kerala
4 As then
5 sImw kollam
6 GXmw few
7 th lord
8 {]`p Lord
9 hSv North
10 Cs today's
11 Xnh\]pcw Thiruvananthapuram
12 FdWmfw Ernakulam
13 tImbw kottayam
14 Bepg Allapuzha
15 Nne few
16 \mSv kuttanad
17 Cu this
18 S\mS kudanad
19 Xriq Thrissur
20 ]memSv Palakkad
21 tImgntmSv Kozhikode
22 \mS country
23 cmPyw country
24 F thus
25 D]n genesis
26 Ghpw maximum
27 Iq kannur
28 Ingv east
29 hb\mSv vayanad
30 KqUep Gudalur
31 thWmSv Venadu
32 Im\mSv Karkanad
33 Fnepw still
34 kaImenI contemporary
35 XpSnb et cetera
36 \nehn at present


Combining Words:(]Zke\w)

In the following table, the formations of all the combined words used in the above passage are shown

No. Word Meaning Formation

1

{InkvXphjns

of AD

{InkvXp+hjw+s

2

BZys

first

BZyw+F

3

\qmpI

centuries

\qdv+Bv+I.

4

tIcfNcn{Xw

kerala history

tIcfw+Ncn{Xw.

5

cq]spXpSp

beginning to form

cq]w+s]v+XpSpI+F

6

ImeLamW

is an era

Imew+Lw+BW

7

kmlnXyn

in literature

kmlnXyw+C

8

kp{]knamb

famous

kp+{]knw+Bb

9

kwLImeamWXv

era of Samgham

kwLw+Imew+BWv+AXv

10

hnimeamb

wide

hnimew+Bb

11

XangIns

of Tamilnadu

Xangv+AIw+s

12

`mKambn

was a part

`mKw+Bbn

13

Fns\

like this

Fv+Cs\.

14

\mSpIfmbn

as countries

\mSpI+Bbn

15

hn`Pnsn

remained divided

hn`Pnsp+C

16

ChbpsS

of these

Ch+DsS

17

AXnnIsfdnp

about borders

AXnn+I+F+dnp

18

IrXyambdnbm

to know precisely

IrXyw+Bbn+Adnbm

19

\nhrnbn

not possible

\nhrn+C

20

IrXnIfn

in books

IrXn+I+C

21

ZnMvam{Xamb

only a little

Zn Ivv+am{Xw+Bb

22

kqN\Ifpv

(there) are indications

kqN\+I+Dv.

23

Pnbpw

and district

Pn+Dw.

24

PnbpsS

of district

Pn+DsS

25

`mKhpw

part too

`mKw+Dw.

26

tNXmbn

was together

tN+AXv+Bbn+C.

27

th\mSmWv

Lord's country

th+\mSv+BWv.

28

thWmSmbX

became venadu

thWmSv+BbX.

29

Fw

(it) means that

Fv+Aw.

30

PnIfpw

districts too

Pn+I+Dw.

31

Pnbnse

in the district

Pn+C+F.

32

{]tZifpw

places too

{]tZiw+I+Dw.

33

PemibfpsS

of lakes

Pemibw+I+DsS.

34

\mSmbXpsImmhWw

as (it) is country

\mSv+BbXv+sImv+BIWw

35

t]mbX

named

t]cv+Dmb+AX

36

hSmbn

it was north

hSv+Bbn+C

37

S\mn

in kudanad

S\mSv+C

38

s]n

included

s]v+C

39

S\mSn

for kudanad

S\mSv+\v

40

]Snmtd

at west

]Snmdv+G.

41

I]nmw

can be assumed

I]nI+Bw

42

sImp\mSns

of kongunad

sImp\mSv+s

43

]Snmdp

in the west

]Snmdv+D

44

\nebnembncnWw

in the status

\ne+C+Bbn+CcnWw

45

t]cns

of name

t]cv+s

46

]qgn\mSmbn

it was Poozhinad

]qgn\mSv+Bbn+C

47

NXpve

marshy places

NXpv+ew+I.

48

[mcmfap

lot of

[mcmfw+D

49

\mSmbnncnmw

could be the place

\mSv+Bbn+C+Ccnmw.

50

XoctZifpw

coastal areas too

Xocw+tZiw+I+Dw

51

]Awihpw

part too

Awiw+Dw

52

CXnsn

included in this

CXv+C+s]v=C

53

]qgn\mSn

for Poozhinad

]qgn\mSv+\v

54

]X{]tZi

mountaneous area

]Xw+{]tZiw+I

55

tNmbn

was together

]tN+Bbn+C

56

Zpaamb

difficult to move

Zp+Kaw+Bb

57

FmWw

it means

Fv+BWv+Aw.

58

Fo

such as

Fv+Cu

59

kwLImentijw

after the era of Samgham

kwLw+Imew+\v + tijw

60

hhbmW

those came

h+Ah+BWv

61

{][m\ambpw

importantly

{][m\w+Bb+Dw.

62

cm{obinIfmW

are political powers

cm{obw+in+I+BW

63

kwLImens

of the era of Samgham

kwLw+Imew+s

64

BZyZibn

in the first period

BZy+Zi+C

65

`cnnX

those who were ruling

`cnv+C+AXv

66

sX{]tZi

southern areas

sX+{]tZiw+I.

67

BbvcmPmmw

Aayi kings too

Bbn+cmPmhv+am+Dw

68

hS

in the west

hSv+D.

69

tZi

places

tZiw+I

70

GgnaecmPmmw

Ezhimala Kings

Ggnae+cmPmhv+am+Dw.

71

`cnph

continued to rule

`cnv +h.

72

ChnSbnep

amongst them

Ch+ v+CS+C+D.

73

\mSmbn

was (the) country

\mSv+Bbn+C

74

tNccmPmmsS

of Chera

tNc+cmPmm+DsS

75

B[n]XynenX

were under the control

B[n]Xyw+C+C+AXv.


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