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Introduction
Introduction
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Passage on Kerala History
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knbpw kamkhpw

In Chapters 2 and 3, you came across several combined words. The combination of the letters in those words is following specific rules of kn & kamkw.

A:

1.tem]kn :

tem]kn means elimination of one letter when words or letters are combined.

Examples:

s]+A=s]

Vowel A is eliminated

hm+FSm=hmSm

Vowel F is eliminated

Bbn+C=Bbn

Vowel C is eliminated

Xv+D-v=Xp-v

Vowel Dv is eliminated

\n+C=\nn

Vowel D is eliminated

hcmsX+C=hcmXn

Vowel F is eliminated



2.BKakn :

In BKakn a new letter is inducted between the two words being combined.

Examples:

]\+Hme=]\tbme

 

b is inducted

A+CSw=AhnSw

 

h is inducted

C+CSw=ChnSw

 

h is inducted

Xe+v=Xe

 

b is inducted

t]m+Dv=t]m, t]mhp

 

I,h are inducted

3.ZznXzkn

In ZznXzkn when two words are combined, the first consonant of the second word is doubled.

Examples:

Xmac+In=Xmacn

I is doubled

tX+]pc=tXmpc

] is doubled

]Wn+Xv=]Wnv

X is doubled

\ns+I-p=\ns-p

I is doubled

A+Imew=Amew

I is doubled

F+F=Fs

\ is doubled


4.BtZikn

In BtZikn when two letters are combined, one letter is replaced by a new letter.

Examples:

\mev+apJ=\mpJ

e is replaced by \

]n+Imew=]nImew

\ is replaced by e

s\+aWn=s\Wn

is replaced by


5.kwkvIrXknI

Malayalam uses lot of Sanskrit words due to the influence of Arya invasion of Kerala, though the language was originally derived from Tamil. When Sanskrit words are combined, the rules followed are from Sanskrit grammar.


5.1.kzckn

kzckn defines the combination of two vowels. Please remember that all the free-standing letters are formed by a combination with the vowel A.

Examples:

Ihn+C{=Iho{

\b\+C{nbw=\bt\{nbw

kmapZmbnI+sFIyw=kmapZmbnssIIyw

A+Bbp[w=AWzmbp[w


5.2.hyRvP\kn

If the last letter of a word and the first letter of another word are consonants, then the combining of these words is done following the rule of hyRvP\kn.

Examples:

a\kv+in=a\n

kv+i has become

alXv+NcnXw=alcnXw

Xv+N has become

hnZ|Xv+in=hnZ|n

Xv+i has become

XzIv+tcmKw=XzKvtcmKw

Iv has become Kv


There are several combinations like this. The rules regarding these combinations are not important to use or learn Malayalam. But these words will appear in the texts hence the student should know that these words are formed by this rule.

B:


When two or more words are combined to form a single meaning, such formation is known as kamkw.

Examples:

AZn\w

=

A+Zn\w

= daily

ImfnZmkIhn

=

ImfnZmk+Ihn

= Poet Kalidasa

ASoepSpv

=

ASnbn+DSpv

= undergarments

`n]qw

=

`n+]qw

= with piety

XnfmgvN

=

Xn+BgvN

= Monday

sNp]m{Xw

=

sNv+]m{Xw

= copper pot

apphmv

=

apv+hmv

= sarcasm

kvamcIanckanXn

=

kvamcIw+ancw+kanXn

= memorial building committee

kwLImentijw

=

kwLw+Imen+ tijw

= after the era of Samgham

Please notice that the resultant word after joining member words conveys a different idea than the meanings of the member words independently. For eg. kvamcIw means memorial, ancw means building and kanXn means committee. But kvamcIanckanXn conveys the meaning of a committee with a responsibility to build a memorial building.

kn and kamkw together form a recipe of the recipes, which is a combined word. It is very similar to Malayalees food habits. Several curries are combined with rice on the dining table in several proportions to suit the likes of the diner. Similarly several words can be combined to convey a new meaning. This is a distinct feature of Malayalam.


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